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Scarring or Fibrosis is caused due to the damage to the liver because of Hepatitis C, which takes place mainly in the form of inflammation. If the doctor diagnoses End-stage hepatitis C, that means that there has been severe damaged by the hepatitis C virus. Usually, over many years, hepatitis C virus slowly damages the liver. The progression is in the form of inflammation to permanent, irreversible scarring (cirrhosis). People generally do not show any symptoms and signs of any liver diseases, or they may have mild symptoms or maybe decades until they develop cirrhosis.

Once, you have been diagnosed with Cirrhosis, the doctors from liver transplant hospital in Pune will focus on the treatment and keep the condition from worsening. The doctors will possibly stop or slow the damage.

How Does Hepatitis Causes Damage to the Liver?

The death of liver cells is caused to Hepatitis C. It cannot be determined whether the virus kills the cells or the cells are killed by the body’s immune system’s response to invasion by the virus. At present, it has been recognised that it is probably a combination of the two, but usually, what causes the most damage is the immune system’s response.

In the affected area, the death of the liver cells triggers the dispatching of the inflammatory cells, which leads to the enlargement of the liver. Over 60% of people infected with hepatitis C can result in the fibroelastic sheath, which surrounds the liver and may also be the reason for pain in the liver area.

Fibrosis can begin due to the process of inflammation. Fibrosis is not a disease, but it is a medical condition which is caused due to the body’s response to liver damage. When the liver is functioning perfectly, stellate cells ( a group of cells in the liver or fat cells) store fat and vitamin A in the liver. These cells help in the functioning of regulating the flow of blood through the liver. However, when the liver is inflamed by the occurrence of hepatitis C, a reaction begins amongst different liver cells. This process results in the dispensing of stellate cells with vitamin A, altering their function.

‘Cytokines’ are released from the infected and inflamed liver cells. The white blood cells get activated from outside the liver, which then travels to the area of infection. These cells team up with Kupffer cells and thus produce chemical signals. The collagen fibres are laid down in the extracellular matrix by the stellate cells.

In the formation of scar tissue, collagen is the significant fibrous protein. The body produces collagen in the area where the injury is present, and it attempts to limit the spread of infection to other cells. The collagen matrix enclosing the injury is normally dissolved, when the infection or injury resolves. The tissues are returned to normal when the activated stellate cells die off.

But due to hepatitis C, chronic illness causes the collagen matrix to grow too fast, and this leads to it not dissolving properly. Hence, around the scar cells, a build-up occurs. The vital access to the blood carrying nutrients is lost, and thus liver cells die. A vicious circles form where the inflammation and fibrogenic cells stimulate each other, resulting in increased fibrosis.

To know more about liver failure, visit the best hospital in Pune.

What are the Symptoms of end-stage liver disease?

The symptoms of end-stage liver disease may include:

  • Easy bleeding or bruising
  • Persistently yellowing of your skin and eyes
  • Intense itching
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Swelling because of fluid build-up in your abdomen and legs
  • Concentration problems and memory issues

Cirrhosis typically progresses to the point where the liver stops function resulting in liver failure. In addition, people having cirrhosis may develop:

  • The enlarged veins in the tube that links the throat and stomach (oesophagus causes bleeding of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract, also known as oesophagal varices.
  • Due to the buildup of toxins in the bloodstream (hepatic encephalopathy), there may occur brain and nervous system damage.
  • Cirrhosis also augments your risk of liver cancer.


To deal with end-stage liver disease, the only effective treatment is a liver transplant. In fact, the most frequent causes of liver transplantation is the chronic hepatitis C. If you are looking for Liver transplant in Mumbai, get the treatment from the best hospital.

If you are diagnosed with hepatitis C or end-stage liver disease, you should consult a doctor who specializes in gastrointestinal diseases or liver diseases (hepatologist). There are many new more-effective hepatitis C treatments that can remove the virus in many people, lessening the risk of end-stage liver disease.