An energy-efficient Hospital: How do some innovative steps bring in Operational efficiency?

  • An energy-efficient hospital is the key to excellence in Healthcare Sectors By-Mr. Neelesh Shinde- Chief Technical Officer, Jupiter Hospital.

    Why We thought for Energy Efficient Hospital.

    Since 2007 Jupiter Hospital ,Thane ( Tertiary care) became operational. During first few years of operations we understood that running cost for Energy consumption is too high and observation was that HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning)  system was contributing more than 55% of entire consumption.In 2013 Management decided to build up Jupiter Hospital at Baner Pune. We made up our mind to  have robust HVAC system which can efficiently control energy consumption

    Dr. Ajay Thakker (Chairman & MD) communicated our thought process with Energy expert. He advised us to send architectural drawings to The Indo Swiss Building Energy Efficiency Project ( BEEP )

    In 2014 BEEP accepted our proposal of designing of HVAC system & they also assured us that they would take active participation in execution & actual performance phase. Lot of discussion happened among us. Across India BEEP has designed only one hospital ( Ie Jupiter Hospital Pune ) under energy efficiency project. Lot of charrettes happened. Charrettes included brainstorming discussion for minimum 3 days  on energy efficiency measures need to be execute on Jupiter Hospital , Pune project. Jupiter MD ,Myself , project architect , services consultant and BEEP representatives were active participants of all these charrettes.

    How to improve the energy efficiency of HVAC system?

    Before we go into measures for improving the energy performance, We need to understand what is U-value, or thermal transmittance

    Thermal transmittance, also known as U-value, is the rate of transfer of heat through a structure (which can be a single material or a composite), divided by the difference in temperature across that structure. The units of measurement are W/m²K.( Watts / sq meter.kelvin )U-values measure how effective a material is an insulator.The better-insulated a structure is, the lower the U-value will be.

    To improve the energy performance following measures were implemented during various charrette.

    1. Roof Insulation


    Before charrette as per traditional way 150 mm RCC construction was decided for roof of the building and U – value for that was1.76 W/m2K

    After charrette we concluded to have 150 mm RCC construction and additional 100 mm extruded polystyrene( XPS ) insulation resulted inreduction of U value of 0.31 W/m2.Kfrom 1.76 W/m2K

    2. Glazing

    Various options were available during selection of glasses. 

    Project team emphasised the importance of daylight in faster recovery of patient. Finally considering aspects like patient comfort, costing we selected double glazed units ( ie 6mm glass outside then 12 mm air gap and finally again 5 mm glass ) which is resulted in U – value of 2.8 W/m2K from 5.8 W/m2.k of single glazed windows.

    3. External wall

    Before charrette we were thinking about 230 mm brick wall with plaster at both end for external surface and U – value for that was 2 W/m2K

    After charrette we decided to have  150 mm Autoclave Aerated Concrete blocks with plasters on both sides instead of 230 mm brick wall. This decision gave three advantages

    1. Easily available material  at project site
    2. less structural load than bricks
    3. reduction of U – value from 2 W/m2K to 0.9 W/m2K

    4. Chiller sizing and selection

    BEEP used dynamic energy simulation software for chiller plant sizing instead of simplified calculation based on static design condition. High efficiency chiller with very good part load performance was selected.

    5. Cooling towers sizing and selection (i.e. Water-Cooled Chillers with Variable Speed Drive, premium efficiency pumps and cooling towers with certification)

    6. Free cooling

    Ward floors have the provision of free cooling, which means if the outside air is suitable for space cooling ,it can be directly be supplied without passing through cooling coil.

    7. Heat recovery wheels

    These are installed alongwith Treated fresh air units installed at ward levels. These recovery wheels helps in fresh air cooling.

    8. Condenser water is used for reheating the air in AHUs for maintaining the relative humidity.

    Overall Energy Performance of Jupiter hospital Pune

    At Jupiter hospital,Thane( 350 beds ) our EPI is around 238 Kwh/m2.yThe annual Energy consumption of hospital is around 65,00,000 kWh/y.

    During execution phase electricity consumption data of Jupiter hospital Pune for 12 months ( May 18 to April 19 ) was collected. During monitoring period two recovery floors were not operational so overall operational area was 2,49,000ft2with 219 operational beds and annual energy consumption was 31,37,520 kWh/y. We observed that EPI of Jupiter hospital Pune  is 136Kwh/m2.y which is very close to predicated during charrettes.









    Approximately additional cost incurred for energy efficient project of Jupiter Hospital, Pune.















    Equipment Details

    Cost in Rupees







    Chiller with Variable frequency drive ( VFD ) v/s chiller without VFD




    Chiller Plant Management software System v/s without plant manager




    Chiller Secondary Pump with VFD & IPS Control v/s without VFD and IPS control




    Condenser hot water heat exchanger and Secondary Pump with VFD utilisation for Humidity control in Air Handling Unit




    TFA with heat recovery wheel vs regular Air handling units




    BMS control system for 18 nos critical Air Handling Unit




    Heat Pump for Hot water




    XPS insulation solution for building roof




    single galzed glass vs double glazed glass











    Comparison between energy consumption of Jupiter Thane and Pune Hospital.


    Jupiter Hospital Thane

    Jupiter Hospital Pune



    Operational beds






    Annual electricity consumption ( units )

     65.2 lacs

    31.48 lacs




    Operational areas without parking and service floors

    27800 sq.meter

    23141 sq .meter




    Energy performance index KWh/ m2 / year






    consumption of  KWh/ bed.year 



    BEEP has evaluated the energy performance of the building under Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) star rating of the hospital using Energy Conservation and commercialization ( ECO ) bench tool. The result shows buildings qualify for a 4-star rating.


    Environment friendly measures other than HVAC system

    Environmental Protection Features adopted in the Engineering System Design and this design can be helpful for other hospitals to build anEnvironment Friendlyhospital in the country.

    1. Zero Liquid Discharge: It is a treatment process designed to remove all the liquid waste from a system. The focus of ZLD is to reduce wastewater economically and produce clean water that is suitable for reuse i.e: Gardening and Flushing system thereby saving money and being beneficial to the environment.
    2. Rainwater Harvesting System: Entire roof water is collected, filtered, and taken into the Rainwater Harvesting tank located inside the building thereby taking the direct benefit of the rainwater. External storm water is collected and fed into the Rainwater harvesting pits thereby recharging the mother earth water.Rainwater harvesting for healthcare buildings, including hospitals, clinics and health centres and has the potential to save thousands of litres of rains water every year. This in turn can result in substantial cost savings and of course contribute to alleviating storm water run-off.
    3. Energy Saving Features: Vertical Transportation Elevators are selected with gearless drive motor and VFD control. This arrangement saves the energy consumed by elevators to the tune of 35%. Transformers are selected to meet the loss values permitted by the Energy Conservation Building Code published by Bureau of Energy Efficiency of India. Entire light fixtures are selected with LED bulbs.
    4. Heat Pumps:used for hot water generation as well as we can use as a backup for humidity control of critical area air handling units.

    Presently, the Indian healthcare sector is passing through a transition and COVID-19 has posed a serious challenge. To deal with the new challenges, the sector needs to not only ramp up its health infrastructure but also bring in efficiency in every possible way. The energy-efficient or intelligent hospital is the key to better cost and care management.


    National Bench mark 200 KWh/ m2/ year (reference Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Govt. of India ECO-III project)

    Therefore in financial terms Jupiter Hospital Pune is 64KWh/m2/yearmore efficient as compare to National benchmark .

    Translating into a financial savings of 64 KWh/m2/ year x 23141 meter2 = 14,81,024 KWh  so considering Rs 13 per KWh cost for electrical unit ; savings will be Rs 1.92 crores / year.

    Approximate additional cost incurred is around 2.15 crores for energy efficient project of Jupiter Hospital Pune rupees additional so return on investment is less than 15 months.


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