Congenital Heart Defects: How These Develop And What Are The Various Types
Congenital heart defects present to the structural and functional cardiac malformations that are present since birth which means that your baby is born with it. While some congenital heart defects are completely harmless and might even heal on their own with time, others can be quite serious and require immediate medical intervention. A child's heart is formed during the first eight weeks of pregnancy. However, in some cases, the process does not take place normally and as a result, the child is born with some heart defect. The leading paediatric cardiology Hospital in Pune offers treatment for a wide gamut of congenital heart problems.
Recognizing the symptoms
Congenital heart defects are usually recognised by their symptoms which become evident soon after the child is born or may even start showing their traces in a few months following the birth. Five major symptoms that might indicate the prevalence of a congenital heart defect, as listed by the doctors from the heart hospital in Thane, are as under:
- Cyanosis or pale bluish tone of the skin
- Rapid and uneven breathing
- Swelling in the limbs, both upper and lower
- Difficulty with feeding
Increase the problem is not detected at the time of birth, the child is most likely to show the following symptoms later in life:
- Shortness of breath especially during exercise or any other physical activity.
- Fatigue and general body weakness
- Syncope i.e. fainting
- Swelling in the limbs
What is the right time to see a doctor?
Whether your child needs medical intervention or not depends upon the adversity of the defect. In some cases, the problem is detected even before birth, whereas in others it might go unnoticed for a very long period of time. It is pertinent to consult a doctor whenever you notice any of the symptoms in your child.
Types of heart defects:
- Hole in the heart - These are the perforations that can form in the walls connecting the various chambers of the heart. This extra passage results in the circulation of oxygen deficit blood to the different organs of your child's body. The greater the size of the hole, the lesser the amount of oxygen in the blood. This lack of oxygenated blood results in cyanosis. Some common examples of a hole in the heart include ventricular septal defect, which refers to the hole in the wall separating the left and the right ventricle of the heart, and atrial septal defect, which refers to a hole in the septum separating the upper two chambers of the heart.
- Blood vessel abnormality - Certain congenital heart defects can also be the result of malformed blood vessels i.e. blood vessels that have not formed correctly or are positioned abnormally. For instance, transposition of the great arteries, a condition in which the pulmonary artery and the aorta are on the wrong sides of the heart, or coarctation of the aorta, a condition marked by narrowed blood vessels in the aorta.
- Heart valve abnormalities - Human heart has 4 valves, each of which plays a very important role in the process of circulation. If any of the valves, fails to function properly, it can hinder the normal flow of blood. One of the most common examples of heart valve abnormality, as suggested by the doctors from the best hospital in Pune, is aortic stenosis, a condition marked by a severe blockage in the aortic valve.
- Underdeveloped heart - As per the best doctors in Thane, in some children, a major part of the heart remains undeveloped just as in case of HLHS (Hypoplastic left heart syndrome). This leads to excessive pressure on the functional portion of the heart to carry out the process of circulation normally.